Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom

“From God’s foreknowledge of a free action, one may infer only that the action will occur, not that it must occur. The agent performing the action has the power to refrain, and were the agent to do so, God’s foreknowledge would have been different. Agents cannot bring it about both that God foreknows their action and that they do not perform the action, but this is no limitation on their freedom.  They are free either to act or to refrain, and whichever they choose, God will have foreknown. For God’s knowledge, though chronologically prior to the action, is logically posterior to the action and determined by it. Therefore, divine foreknowledge and human freedom are not mutually exclusive.”

– William Lane Craig, The Only Wise God (1999: Wipf and Stock Publishers, Eugene, OR), p. 74

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