Feedback: Arminians Limit the Power of the Atonement

This week’s feedback comes in response to the post If Christ Died For All, And All Are Not Saved, Did Christ Die In Vain?  This week’s chosen respondent raises the old accusation that Arminianism limits the power of the atonement.

Question: “See this is why I could never be Armenian.  At least us Calvinists beleive that Christ actually did something on the cross.  We say the atonement was of infinite value and powerful beyond limitations, but the extent of the atonement is limited for the elect.  We say Christ actually secured our salvation at the cross.  You Armenians believe that Christ only makes men ‘savable’ whatever that means.  You believe that Christ died for the whole world, but the whole world isn’t saved.  It you who limits the atonement, you limit it’s power…Why do you say the power is a “non issue”, when you clearly limit the power?”

Answer: Thanks for taking the time to write in.  The accusation that Arminianism limits the power of the atonement is certainly not a new one.  From my experience, it is one of the most common objections to Arminianism, as far as debates about the extent of the atonement go.  Sometimes, those of us within the Arminian (or at least ‘non-Calvinist’) camp ‘shoot ourselves in the foot’ by not defining our beliefs and our use of terms as well as we should, which serves to feed the conception, or more correctly misconception, that Arminianism limits the power of the atonement.

From the outset, I want to make it clear that Calvinists such as yourself are not wrong to charge Arminianism with limiting the atonement in some measure.  In fact, Calvinists are quite right to point out that Arminianism limits the atonement as certainly (but not necessarily in the same way) as does the Calvinist.  I realise that not all Arminians would agree with me on this point.  Notable Arminian Roger Olson, for example, expressly denies that Arminianism limits the atonement in any way.  I have no objection to a Calvinist claiming that Arminianism in some measure limits the atonement.  Indeed, unless we are going to embrace Universalism (the belief that all will be saved), I believe that we must accept at least some measure of limitation.  

What I object to is the assertion that Arminianism limits the power of the atonement. 

I believe that there are two main reasons for the assertion that Arminianism limits the power of the atonement.  The first being an apparent flaw within the Calvinistic view of the atonement whereby they make the atonement and its application the same thing, and the second being a misconception of true Arminian beliefs, and thus a faulty idea of what the logical conclusion of Arminian beliefs are (as stated above, this is sometimes our own fault for not articulating our beliefs and use of terms as well as we should).  For the sake of providing a response to your actual question, my focus will be mainly on correcting the misconception of Arminian beliefs, rather than attempting a full-scale refutation of the Calvinistic view.

First of all, what do Arminians mean when they say that they believe in ‘universal atonement’, ‘unlimited atonement’, or ‘atonement for all’?  Those terms, taken at face-value, may lead many to conclude that Arminians believe in Universalism, the belief that all people will eventually be saved.  This is most certainly not what Arminians mean, however, when they use terms such as above.  What we actually mean, and this is why we should be more careful with our use of terms, is ‘universal provision’, or ‘unlimited provision’.  

Provision and Application

When we use the word provision, we are implicitly making a distinction between the universal provision of the atonement and the individual application of the atonement.  In other words, provision has been made for the whole world through Christ’s death, but the benefits of Christ’s death (specifically salvation) are not received by an individual until such time as they apply the blood.  

We believe that there are good Scriptural precedents for making the distinction between the provision and the application of the atonement.  Five examples shall suffice.  The first three examples are Old Testament types of Christ (later confirmed in the New Testament), the fourth example is how the Apostle Paul describes God as Saviour, and the fifth is how Paul describes a couple of other believers.

The Passover Lamb

The blood of the Passover lamb (Ex. 12:6, 21) was provided for all of Israel (Ex. 12:3), without a hint of it being only for an ‘elect’ group within Israel.  But the fact that the blood of the Passover lamb was provided for all Israel didn’t automatically guarantee that all Israel would benefit from it.  The blood became effectual only after it was applied to the door posts (Ex. 12:7, 22); the blood itself didn’t save anyone.  Any Israelite who failed to apply the lamb’s blood to their doorpost would thus have failed to receive any benefit from the death of the Passover lamb, in spite of the fact that they could have, as they were provided for.

It is obvious that even if an Israelite did fail in receiving a benefit from the death of the Passover lamb, it wouldn’t follow that such a person fell outside the scope of the provision of the lamb. The failure to receive benefit is rooted in the rejection of the provision, and not in the provision itself.

That the Passover Lamb was for all of Israel speaks of provision; that the Passover Lamb saved only those that applied the blood to their doorpost speaks of application.

The Passover Lamb is confirmed in the New Testament as being a legitimate type of Christ, for the Apostle Paul refers to Christ as “our Passover lamb” (1 Cor. 5:7).

The Serpent in the Wilderness

Because the people of Israel became impatient and complained against God and Moses (Num. 21:4-5), God sent fiery serpents among the people, and the serpents bit the people, so that many people died (Num. 21:6).  When the people acknowledged their sin, they asked Moses to pray to God for them (Num. 21:7). God answered Moses’ prayer, saying,

“‘Make a fiery serpent and set it on a pole, and everyone who is bitten, when he sees it, shall live.’  So Moses made a bronze serpent and set it on a pole. And if a serpent bit anyone, he would look at the bronze serpent and live.” (Num. 21:8-9)

The bronze serpent was a provision for “everyone” and “anyone”. But the fact that the bronze serpent was provided for all Israel didn’t automatically guarantee that all Israel would benefit from it.  The bronze serpent became effectual only after someone looked at it by faith. The serpent itself didn’t save anyone. Anyone who refused to look by faith at the serpent would thus have failed to receive any benefit from the bronze serpent, in spite of the fact that they could have, as they were provided for.

It is obvious that even if an Israelite did fail in receiving a benefit from the bronze serpent, it wouldn’t follow that such a person fell outside the scope of the provision of the serpent.  The failure to receive benefit is rooted in the rejection of the provision, and not in the provision itself.

That the serpent was for “everyone” and “anyone” speaks of provision; that it healed only those who looked to it in faith speaks of application.

The serpent in the wilderness is confirmed as a legitimate type of Christ by Jesus Christ Himself, when He drew an explicit comparison between the serpent in the wilderness and His own death (Jn. 3:14).

The Cities of Refuge

The cities of refuge were a provision for the manslayer (Num. 35:9-15). Furthermore, it was a provision for any manslayer – the people of Israel, and for the stranger, and for the sojourner (Num. 35:15).  But the fact that the cities of refuge were provided for any manslayer did not automatically guarantee that any manslayer would benefit from them.  The city of refuge was only effective as long as the manslayer entered, and stayed within, the boundaries (Num. 35:26-28).  Any manslayer who refused to either enter in (in the first place), or remain in, the cities of refuge would thus fail to receive any benefit from said cities, in spite of the fact that they could have, as provision was made for them.

It is obvious that even if a manslayer did fail in receiving benefit from the provision of the cities of refuge, it wouldn’t follow that such a person fell outside the scope of the provision of the cities. The failure to receive benefit is rooted in the rejection of the provision, and not in the provision itself.

That the cities were for any manslayer speaks of provision; that they protected only those who entered and remained within the boundaries speaks of application.

The author to the Hebrews makes reference to the fact that we have fled to Jesus for refuge (6:18).  Even the hyper-Calvinist John Gill explicitly declared 1) that the cities of refuge were each types of Christ, and 2) that Hebrews 6:18 is referring to this fact.

The Saviour of All People, Especially of Those Who Believe

Paul writes that God is “the Savior of all people, especially of those who believe” (1 Tim. 4:10).  That God is the Saviour of all people speaks of provision; that God is the Saviour especially of believers speaks of application.

In Christ Before Paul

Paul writes that Andronicus and Junia, his kinsmen and fellow prisoners, “were in Christ before me [Paul]” (Rom. 16:7).  The fact that someone can be “in Christ” before someone else implies that there is a difference between the atonement itself, and the application of that atonement.  

If not, and the atonement and its application are the same thing, then we would have to believe that the elect were actually literally saved at the moment of Christ’s death, a belief which entails the elect being saved, and thus “in Christ”, all at the same time.  This would also entail the elect being born saved, and thus never being “dead in trespasses and sins”, nor “children of wrath” (Cf. Eph. 2:1-3), and therefore, being saved before ever having exercised faith. 

The distinction between the provision and the application of the atonement is therefore deducible from Paul’s description of Andronicus and Junia as being “in Christ” before him.  

As the above examples show, there is indeed a distinction between the atonement and the application of the atonement.  In other words, the atonement is provisional in nature, until such time as it is applied.

Unless the Calvinist is going to affirm that the elect were born saved, then in principle, he must affirm a provisional aspect of the atonement, in some measure at least.

Provision and Intention

Following on from the distinction between the provision of the atonement and an individual’s application of the atonement, it is helpful to recognise the distinction between the provision and intention of the atonement.  As the application of the atonement refers to a human action, namely, an individual’s application of Christ’s blood by looking to Him in faith, the intention of the atonement refers to a Divine action, namely, who God actually intends to save.

When we speak of God’s intentions, two fundamental questions need to be asked:

1) Why did Christ shed His blood in the first place?

2) Who does God intend to save?

At the risk of oversimplification, I believe a very basic answer to the first question would be that Christ shed His blood as a means of providing the redemption of those whom God has intended to save. This then raises the second question, Who does God actually intend to save?  It is my position that even though He desires that all would come to faith and repentance, God has only ever intended to save those who believe (cf. 1 Cor. 1:21, Gal. 3:22, 1 Tim. 4:10). As Richard Baxter said, “it was never the intent of his mind, to pardon and save any that would not by faith and repentance be converted”.

Once again, referring back to the aforementioned Old Testament foreshadows of Christ is helpful.

Just as God intended the blood of the Passover Lamb to be effectual only for those who applied it to their doorposts (Ex. 12), so He intends the blood of Christ (our Passover Lamb, 1 Cor. 5:7) to be effectual only for those who apply the blood.

Just as God intended the serpent in the wilderness, lifted up, to be effectual for those who looked to it in faith (Num. 21), so Christ (our Serpent in the wilderness, Jn. 3:14), lifted up, was only ever intended to be effectual for those who look to Him in faith.

Just as God intended the cities of refuge to be effectual only for those entered, and stayed within, the boundaries (Num. 35), so Christ (our City to whom we have fled for refuge, Heb. 6:18) was only ever intended to be effectual for those who enter into union with, and remain in union with, Him.

Christ’s blood accomplishes exactly what God intended: it saves those who by faith and repentance believe the Gospel (cf. 1 Cor. 1:21).  Therefore, to say that Arminians limit the power of the atonement is just plain nonsense.  The fact that Christ’s blood does not save every single person without exception, in spite of the fact that provision has been made for every single person, says nothing about the power of the atonement, for 1) God has never intended to save anyone who would not by faith and repentance believe the Gospel, and 2) the atonement accomplishes exactly what God intended, namely, the salvation of those who believe.  

To say that Arminianism limits the power of the atonement amounts to nothing more than saying that Arminianism limits the power of the atonement to being able to achieve exactly what God has intended it to achieve, which is a redundant criticism.  If the atonement accomplishes exactly what God intended, then its power cannot reasonably be said to have been limited in any meaningful sense of the word.

Best regards,

Arminian

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12 thoughts on “Feedback: Arminians Limit the Power of the Atonement

  1. Prayson Daniel February 16, 2015 / 8:12 pm

    Thank you so much for a wonderful reply. I agree with you completely. I think classical reformed view would hold that (a) If the atonement accomplishes exactly what God intended, then its power cannot reasonably be said to have been limited in any meaningful sense of the word.

    I have argued elsewhere that Martin Luther, John Calvin and Jacob Arminius held both the universality and particularity of atonement view regarding the nature and extent of atonement. As a reformed traditionalist, I hold that Christ shed his blood for all, post-Christ’s death and resurrection, without exception. This is the universality of the atoning work of Christ Jesus. The shed blood of Christ is, however, not extended to all without exception but to all without distinction. This is the particularity of the atoning work of Christ Jesus. The shed blood of Christ extends or is applied particularly to believers.

    Arminius following Luther’s and Calvin’s reformed traditional on this issue wrote: “Of this latter sentiment [viz., Christ’s death is “the redemption, which was obtained by means of that price, is applied and communicated to all men and to every one”] I entirely disapprove, because God has by a peremptory decree resolved, that believers alone should be made partakers of this redemption.” (WA 1:316)

    The confusion between offer and application of atonement of Christ solves the problem. The offer is universal, whom-so-ever would believe, put the application is particular, those who believe in Christ Jesus. Since the atonement is applied to those whom God intended then (a) ought to be true both for Arminians and Calvinists brothers in Christ.

    Best regards,

    Calvinist

  2. Arminian February 24, 2015 / 4:11 pm

    Thanks :)

  3. calvinandcalvinism February 25, 2015 / 7:57 am

    I agree with Prayson above.

    Unfortunately many modern TULIP advocates have tried to create a false either/or. Either its substitutionary atonement or its not. If it is substitutionary, then it’s limited atonement.

    Historically, Arminius held to the same doctrine of vicarious satisfaction as did many of his contemporaries within the Reformed world at the time. And many of his Reformed contemporaries held to unlimited satisfaction and vicarious satisfaction together. Its just plain wrong to suggest, therefore, that vicarious satisfaction entails limited satisfaction, all by itself.

    The other thing I would like to know is, what “power” does the atonement have? Were we all saved on the cross? Were we all justified from birth? What is this power exactly? For a lot of folk, this is a real cause for confusion.

    David

  4. Arminian February 25, 2015 / 3:05 pm

    Agreed. Thanks David :)

  5. Sunnyjim March 2, 2015 / 2:52 pm

    Arminian, You say, “Just as God intended the blood of the Passover Lamb to be effectual only for those who applied it to their doorposts (Ex. 12), so He intends the blood of Christ (our Passover Lamb, 1 Cor. 5:7) to be effectual only for those who apply the blood.”
    In large measure, you have developed an argument that no one, Calvinist included, would deny: “The fact that Christ’s blood does not save every single person without exception, in spite of the fact that provision has been made for every single person, says nothing about the power of the atonement, for 1) God has never intended to save anyone who would not by faith and repentance believe the Gospel, and 2) the atonement accomplishes exactly what God intended, namely, the salvation of those who believe.”
    The question is, who does apply the blood? I will submit it is not the recipient, but rather the Holy Spirit who applies the blood.

  6. calvinandcalvinism March 3, 2015 / 4:07 am

    Sunnyjim, The Spirit applies, but personal faith is the instrumental means, or to use the classical expression, causa sine qua non. No faith, no salvation. As Peter says in Acts, “Save yourselves….”

  7. Sunnyjim March 3, 2015 / 3:10 pm

    Well and good calvinandcalvinism, but where does that personal faith come from? That faith is a gift, as it is stated in Ephesians, “For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.
    Therefore remember that at one time you Gentiles in the flesh, called “the uncircumcision” by what is called the circumcision, which is made in the flesh by hands—remember that you were at that time separated from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ.” (Ephesians 2:8-13 ESV)
    Yes, that blood, applied by the Spirit, brought me out of my state of sin and misery, by revealing the Person and work of Christ, so that I indeed have a Savior who saves me to the uttermost.

    Alien, good post!

  8. calvinandcalvinism March 4, 2015 / 8:18 am

    Hey there,

    Firstly to the link that Alien posted, that stuff was weird. But trying to interact with the contents of all that would take forever. To Sunny, you made a few points above. My response was to this specifically:

    2) the atonement accomplishes exactly what God intended, namely, the salvation of those who believe.” The question is, who does apply the blood? I will submit it is not the recipient, but rather the Holy Spirit who applies the blood.

    David: A few things, the atonement does not save. It is the legal means or framework by which God saves. The atonement is the means by which God saves. Its actually a small point but many TULIP type Calvinists often go crazy over that point.

    The application of the Blood is by the Spirit–in due time–but the instrumental means or causa sine qua non is faith. No faith, no salvation. No faith, no forgiveness. A provision is made, but its application is contingent on a few conditions being in play. One is the Spirit’s application. The other is personal faith. Thus there is a place for the distinction between the provision, itself, and the application of that provision. Now the big contention between TULIP Calvinists, on the one hand, and moderate Calvinists and/or evangelical Arminians on the other, is whether or not the claim is true that the atonement carries within itself some sort of self-applying efficacy, such that all for whom Christ dies, all cannot fail to be saved. Outside of the TULIP world, its pretty standard to say that a person for whom Christ died, may yet fail to be saved.

    So while some of us may say that faith is a gift of God, we may also affirm that it is not the case that there is an infallible connection between the death of Christ, per se, aka the atonement, and its application. For someone like me, that’s the line of thought you would need to argue to, and that by good and necessary inference.

    As to “intention” I think the author nails it when he sites Baxter: “As Richard Baxter said, “it was never the intent of his mind, to pardon and save any that would not by faith and repentance be converted”.

    Clearly, Christ intended to save all those who believe in him. Why the need to extend that beyond what the written text says? Once this simple point is understood, verses like Matt 1:21 and Eph 5:23 make perfect sense on non-TULIP assumptions. That is, one does not have to buy into TULIP in order to be able to read and understand the import of those verses in a coherent manner.

    Hope that helps.

  9. Arminian March 4, 2015 / 9:35 am

    Very good response, David. Thanks :)

  10. Ary March 14, 2015 / 1:35 am

    Great teaching, thank you very much. The difference between provision and application is clear. I don’t understand fully your remarks about intention. What was the intention of Christ dead on the cross. Was that only to save all who would believe or was it to give everyone a real possibility to get saved. If I am right there are many texts that say that Jesus died for alle people, this means that in some way He intended his death for all people. Jezus died for the world, for the whole world, for all, for everyone, for all man.

  11. Dale October 7, 2016 / 1:35 pm

    Sunnyjim on March 3, 2015 you stated that faith was the gift of God but as the following article shows that is not a correct reading of the text. You have to look at any text in context if you wish to get a correct understanding of it. Hope this helps clearup any missunderstanding you may have in regard to this verse.

    @ Eph_2:8
    Salvation – the Gift from God
    For centuries, Bible commentators have differed on the precise reference of the pronoun “that” in Eph_2:8. Does “that” (touto) refer to faith, as many have stated (e.g., Augustine, Chrysostom, Westcott, Lenski, etc.), or, does “that” refer to salvation from sin? Is faith “the gift of God,” or is this gift salvation by grace through faith?
    Admittedly, from a cursory reading of Eph_2:8, it may appear that the relative pronoun that has faith as its grammatical antecedent. Those who believe that faith is a gift (i.e., miraculous imposition) from God, often point out that in this verse “faith” is the nearest antecedent of “that” (“For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God”). However, when one examines Eph_2:8 in the language in which it was written originally (Greek), he finds that the pronoun that (touto) is neuter in gender, while the word faith (pistis) is feminine. Since the general rule in Greek grammar is for the gender and number of a relative pronoun to be the same as its antecedent (Mounce, 1993, p. 111), then some extenuating linguistic circumstance, special idiomatic use, or other mitigating factor would need to be demonstrated to justify linking “that” to “faith.” If such reasonable justification cannot be made, then one is compelled to continue studying the passage in order to know assuredly what “that” gift of God is.
    When no clear antecedent is found within a text, Greek scholar William Mounce wisely recommends that the Bible student study the context of the passage in question in order to help determine to what a relative pronoun (like “that”) is referring (1993, p. 111). The overall context of the first three chapters of Ephesians is man’s salvation found in Christ.
    “In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of His grace” (Eph_1:7).
    The heavenly “inheritance” is found in Christ (Eph_1:11).
    After believing in the good news of salvation through Christ, the Ephesians were “sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise” (Eph_1:13).
    Sinners are made “alive with Christ” and saved “by grace” (Eph_2:5).
    Sinners are brought near to God “by the blood of Christ” (Eph_2:13).
    Paul became a servant of Christ “according to the gift of the grace of God…by the effective working of His power” (Eph_3:7).

    Not only is the theme of salvation the overall context of the first three chapters of Ephesians, but the immediate context of Eph_2:8-9 is of salvation, not of faith. Paul is talking about HOW A PERSON IS SAVED. The main idea of the sentence is found in the verb “ARE YE SAVED” [or “YE ARE SAVED”]. How is a person saved? Eph_2:8-9 answers this key question.

    Salvation is by grace.
    Salvation is through faith.
    Salvation is not of yourselves.
    Salvation is the GIFT OF GOD.
    Salvation is not of works.
    Paul is not giving a dissertation on faith, but he is giving a brief dissertation on salvation. SALVATION is his main subject. Faith is mentioned because you cannot answer the question “HOW IS A PERSON SAVED?” without mentioning faith. A person is saved by believing on the Lord Jesus Christ (Act_16:31). God’s gracious gift of salvation must be personally received, and it is received by faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. But the main thing that Paul is talking about in these two verses is salvation, not faith
    Just as water is received into a house in twenty-first-century America through a pipeline, a sinner receives salvation through obedient faith. The main focus of Paul’s message in Eph_2:8-9 was salvation (the living “water that springs up into everlasting life”—cf. Joh_4:14), not the mode of salvation.
    Faith is not a direct gift from God given to some but not others. Rather, as Paul wrote to the church at Rome, “faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God” (Rom_10:17). Faith in Christ as the Son of God is only found in those who have first heard the Word of God, and then believed (cf. Joh_20:31).

    Silverhair

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